Выражения, вошедшие в английский язык из произведений У. Шекспира

 "Alas, poor Yorick" ("Увы, бедный Йорик" - перевод М. Лозинского), words from the play "Hamlet". Hamlet says this in a graveyard as he meditates upon the skull of Yorick, a court jester he had known and liked as a child. Hamlet goes on to say that though "my lady" may put on "paint (make-up) an inch thick, to this favour (condition) she must come". 

"Alt the world's a stage", and all the men and women merely players" ("Весь мир - театр. В нем женщины, мужчины - все актеры" - перевод Т. Щепкиной-Куперник), the beginning of speech in the play "As You Like It". It Is also called "The Seven Ages of Man", since It treats that' many periods in a man's life: his years as infant, schoolboy, lover, soldier, judge, foolish old man, and finally "second childishness and mere oblivion". 

"Fear not till BIrnam Wood do come to Dunslnane" ("Пока на Дунсинанский холм в поход Бирнамский лес~деревья не пошлет, Макбет не сокрушим" - перевод Ю. Корнеева), a prophecy made by witches to Macbeth In the play "Macbeth". Later in the play, Macbeth's enemies advance on the hill-of Dunsinane, his stronghold, camouflaged by tree branches they have cut from the Forest of Birnam. Macbeth sees Birnam Wood, moving as prophesied, and realizes that he will soon die. 

"Brutus is an honourable man" ("Он римлянин был самый благородный" - перевод М.3енкевича), a statement made several times' in a speech by Mark Antony in the play "Julius Caesar". The speech is Antony's funeral oration over Caesar, whom Brutus has helped kill. "Brutus is an honourable man" is ironic, since Antony is attempting to portray Brutus as ungrateful and treacherous. He succeeds in turning the Roman people against Brutus and the other assassins. 

"There's a divinity that shapes our ends" ("...то божество намерения наши довершает" - перевод М. Лозинского), a line spoken by the title -character in the play "Hamlet". In referring to a divine power that Influences human affairs, ll.inilrl Is ilcfcnding a decision he made suddenly, and is questioning the need for careful planning in all circumstances. 

"Et tu, Brute?" (<И ты, о Брут!" - перевод . М. Зенкевича), a Latin sentence meaning "Even you, Brutus?" from the play "Julius Caesar". Caesar utters these words as he is being stabbed to death, having recognized his friend Brutus among the assassins. >

"Et tu, Brute?" is used to express surprise and dismay at the treachery of a supposed friend. 

"Every Inch a king" ("Король, король - от головы до ног" - перевод Т. Щипкиной-Купер-ник), a phrase used by the title character in the play "King Lear" to describe himself to his friend, the earl of Gloucester. The situation is ironic; Lear Is raving over his deprivation and is wearing weeds. 

"Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears" ("Друзья, сограждане, внемлите мне" - перевод М. Зенкевича), the first line of a speech from the play "Julius Caesar". Mark Antony addresses the crowd at Caesar's funeral: 
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; 
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. 
The evil that men do lives after them, 
The good is oft interred with their bones... 

"Get thee to a nunnery" ("Уйди в монастырь" - перевод М. Лозинского), words from the play "Hamlet". The advice Hamlet gives to Ophelia. He bids her live a life of celibacy. 

"How sharper than a serpent's tooth It Is to have a thankless child" ("...острей зубов змеиных неблагодарность детища!" - перевод Т. Щепкиной-Куперник), lines from the play "King Lear", spoken by King Lear after he has been betrayed by his two elder daughters. 

"If music be the food of love, play on" ("О музыка, ты пища для любви! Играйте же, [любовь. мою насытьте]" - перевод Э. Линецкой), the first line of the play "Twelfth Night". The speaker is asking for music because he is frustrated in courtship; he wants an overabundance of love so that he may lose his appetite for .it. 

"The lady doth protest too much" ("Эта женщина слишком щедра на уверения" - перевод М. Лозинского), a line from the play "Hamlet", spoken by Hamlet's mother. Hamlet's mother is watching a play, and a character in it swears never to remarry if her husband dies. The play is making Hamlet's mother uncomfortable, because she herself has remarried almost immediately after the murder of her first husband. 

"Lay on, Macduff" ("Макдуф, начнем" - перевод Ю. Корнеева), a line from the play "Macbeth". Macbeth speaks these words as he attacks his enemy Macduff at the end of the play; Macbeth is killed in the fight. 

"Yon Cassius has a lean and hungry look" ("А Кассий тощ. в глазах холодный блеск" перевод М. Зенкевича), a phrase from the play "Julius Caesar". Caesar remarks so, concerning one of the men conspiring against him. He means that Cassius looks dangerously dissatisfied, as if he were starved for power. 

"Lord, what fools these mortals be!" ("Как безумен род людской!" - перевод Т. Щепкиной-Куперник), a line from the play "A Midsummer Night's Dream". A mischievous fairy. Puck, addressing his king, is commenting on the folly of the human beings who have come into his forest. 

"There are more things In heaven and earth, Horatio" ("И в небе и в земле сокрыто больше, (чем снится вашей мудрости,] Горацио" - перевод М. Лозинского), a phrase used by the title character in the play "Hamlet". Hamlet suggests that human knowledge is limited: "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your Philosophy." 

"Neither a borrower nor a lender be" ("В долг не бери и взаймы не давай" - перевод М. Лозинского), a line from the play "Hamlet". Polonius, a garrulous old man, gives this advice to his son. 

"The noblest Roman, of them all" ("Он римлянин был самый благородный" - перевод М. Зенкевича), a phrase from the play "Julius Caesar", Mark Antony.uses it at the end of the play to describe Brutus; Antony maintains that Brutus was the only one of Caesar's assassins who took part in the killing for unselfish motives. 

"One that loved not wisely but too well" ("...этот человек любил без меры и благоразумья" - перевод Б. Пастернака), a phrase from the play "Othello". This is Othello's description of himself after he has murdered his wife in a jealous rage. 

"Out, damned spot!" ("Прочь, проклятое пятно!" - перевод Ю. Корнеева), a sentence from the play "Macbeth" spoken by Lady Macbeth, the wife of the title character. Her husband has killed the king of Scotland at her urging, but her guilt over the murder gradually drives her insane. When she speaks this line she is sleepwalking, and she imagines that a spot of the king's blood stains her hand. 

"Pound of flesh" ("Фунт мяса [вправе вырезать у вас]" - перевод И. Мандельштама), a phrase from the play "Merchant of Venice". The moneylender Shylock demands the flesh of the "merchant of Venice", Antonio, under a provision in their contract. Shylock never gets the pound of flesh, however, because the character Portia discovers a point of law that overrides the contract between Shylock and Antonio: Shylock is forbidden to shed any blood in getting the flesh from Antonio's body. 

People who cruelly or unreasonably insist on their rights are said to be demanding their "pound of flesh". 

"Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo?" ("Ромео! Ромео, о зачем же ты Ромео!" - перевод Т. Щепкиной-Куперник), words' from the play "Romeo and Juliet". ("Wherefore" means "why".) Juliet is lamenting Romeo's name, alluding to the feud between their two families. (See: "What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.") 

"Something is rotten in the state of Denmark" ("Подгнило что-то в датском государстве" - перевод М. Лозинского), a line from the play "Hamlet". An officer of the palace guard says this after the ghost of the dead king appears, walking over the palace walls. 

"Something is rotten in the state of Denmark" is used to describe corruption or a situation in which something is wrong. 

"There is a special providence in the fall of a sparrow" ("...и в гибели воробья есть особый промысел" - перевод М. Лозинского), a line from the play "Hamlet" suggesting that a divine power takes a benevolent interest in human affairs. hamlet, the speaker, is echoing words of Jesus, that one sparrow "shall not fall on the ground without your Father*'. Hamlet's speech continues: "If It be now, 'tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be now; if it be not now, yet it will come: the readiness is all". 

"Star-crossed Iovers" ("...под звездой злосчастной любовников [чета произошла]" - перевод Т. Щепкиной-Куперник), a phrase from the play "Romeo and Juliet". Romeo and Juliet are so described in the prologue to the play. 

"Star-crossed lovers refers to any lovers whose affection for each other is doomed to end in tragedy. 

"That way madness lies" ("Но это путь к безумью" - перевод Т. Щепкиной-Купсрннк), a statement made by the title character in the play "King Lear". Lear has started to speak about the treachery of his two elder daughters, but then realizes that dwelling on the injury could drive him mad. 

"To be, or not to be" ("Быть или не быть - [таков вопрос]" -перевод М.Лозинского), words from the play "Hamlet". They begin a famous speech by Prince Hamlet in which he considers suicide as an escape, from his troubles: "To be, or not to be: that is the question". 

"Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow" ("Завтра, завтра, завтра,- (а дни .ползут, и вот уж в, книге жизни читаем мы последний слог...]" - перевод Ю. Корнеева), a line from the play "Macbeth", spoken by the title character after he learns of Ills wife's death. The speech begins: 

Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow, Creeps in this pretty pace from day to day, To the last syllable of recorded time... 

Источники переводов на русский язык 
Мардо К. Сочинения / Пер. с англ. Е. Бируковой, И. Жданова, Ю. Корнеева, Э. Липецкой, Е. Полонской, А; Радловой, Э. Рождественского. Ред. пер. А. Смирнова.-М., 1961. 
Шекспир У. Поли. собр. соч. в 8-ми т.- М., 1959; 19GO. 
Шекспир У. Избр. произв.- Л., 1975. 
Шекспир В. Избр. произв.- М.- Л., 1950. 
Шекспир В. Избр. произв.- М., 1953. Г. Д. Томахина, 
журнал "Иностранные языки".



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